Q: Do lead acid batteries discharge when not in use?
Ans: All batteries, regardless of their chemistry, will self-discharge. The rate of self-discharge for lead acid batteries depends on the storage or operating temperature.
Q: Why deep discharge reduces the life of lead acid batteries?
Ans: Deep discharge of batteries often leads to mechanical stresses in the plates, which leads to shedding, poor conductivity, and a diminished lifetime of the system. .For all these reasons, the practical capacity of a battery may be even lower than its nominal capacity.
Q: How long will a lead acid battery last if not used?
Ans: 2 years A sealed lead–acid battery can be stored for up to 2 years. During that period, it is vital to check the voltage and charge it when the battery drops to 70%. Low charge increases the possibility of sulfation.
Q: Is boiled water the same as distilled water?
Ans: Boiled water is simply water that has reached its boiling point, usually within a few minutes. Distilled water has had all of its impurities removed, including minerals and microorganisms. Boiled water is free from microorganisms but still contains mineral salts, like calcium.
Q: What are the benefits of distilled water?
Ans: All water — no matter if it comes from a natural spring, artesian well, or regular tap — may have trace but safe amounts of minerals, bacteria, pesticides, and other contaminants. Distilling rids water of all those impurities. It also removes more than 99.9% of the minerals dissolved in water
Q: What is the difference between a cell and a battery?
Ans: A cell is known as a single unit device that converts electrical energy to chemical energy, while a battery is a group of different cells. A cell can be either of wet, dry, fuel or reserve type depending on the kind of electrolytes used, while a battery is either rechargeable or non-rechargeable.
Q: What is power of a battery?
Ans: Power capacity is how much energy is stored in the battery. A Watt-hour is the voltage (V) that the battery provides multiplied by how much current (Amps) the battery can provide for some amount of time (generally in hours).
Q: Is a 12 volt car battery AC or DC?
Ans: Car batteries provide 12.6V DC (direct current) through six cells, producing 2.1V each.
Q: What are the advantages of lead acid batteries?
Ans: Inexpensive and simple to manufacture. Mature, reliable and well-understood technology – when used correctly, lead–acid is durable and provides dependable service. The self-discharge is among the lowest of rechargeable battery systems. Capable of high discharge rates.
For the new battery we first need to fill the acid then it needs to be charged 24-36 hours; This is called mother charging
First time charging procedure will be like below
12 hours with 20 ampere current Then rest for 3-4 hours
Then again charge it for 12 hours with 20 ampere current
After 24 hours, if the gravity does not reach 1300, we need to charge the battery again for 6 hours
Then rest for 3-4 hours
Then again charge it for 6 hours with 20 ampere current
Standard Acid Gravity: 1265-1280
Explain that the longer horizontal line in the battery symbol depicts the positive (+) terminal and the shorter horizontal line depicts the negative (–) terminal.
Each cell has an anode, cathode and electrolyte. The electrolyte is the main material inside the battery. … The anode reacts with the electrolyte to produce electrons (this is the negative or – end). The cathode reacts with the electrolyte and takes electrons (this is the positive or + end).
Battery capacity is measured in milliamps × hours (mAH). For example, if a battery has 250 mAH capacity and provides 2 mA average current to a load, in theory, the battery will last 125 hours.
There are two basic types of batteries: primary and secondary. Primary batteries are “single use” and cannot be recharged. Dry cells and (most) alkaline batteries are examples of primary batteries. The second type is rechargeable and is called a secondary battery.
A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it to electrical energy. The chemical reactions in a battery involve the flow of electrons from one material (electrode) to another, through an external circuit. The flow of electrons provides an electric current that can be used to do work.
Here is a list of some Optical Abbreviations that will help you order your glasses
ADD (also NV-ADD): the Near Vision (NV) Reading Addition correction on a multifocal Rx. Can be used for bifocal or progressive glasses, or for single-vision reading or computer (intermediate) vision glasses.
AR: Anti-Reflective. A coating that reduces reflection on the lenses.
AXIS: the angle at which the Cylinder (CYL) is placed on a lens to correct an astigmatism. It ranges from 1 to 180.
BAL: the Rx calls for balance lenses, meaning the same Rx for each eye. Often used when a person has no sight in one eye, so both lenses will have the same thickness.
BD, BI, BO, BU: a prism correction on your Rx (may be indicated with Δ, and one of these four abbreviations. The B stands for base, and it could be base down (BD), base in (BI), base out (BO), or base up (BU).
CYL: the Cylinder. Combined with the AXIS, the CYL corrects an astigmatism.
DS: the abbreviation for diopter simplex. An eye dr. may write DS on an Rx in the Cylinder (CYL) field if no astigmatism correction is needed.
DV: distance vision.
FT: flat-top bifocal.
NV: near vision.
Multifocal lenses are similar to progressive eyeglasses where there are several focal points in each lens for distance, intermediate and reading correction
NV-ADD (also ADD): the Near Vision (NV) Reading Addition correction on a multifocal Rx. Can be used for bifocal or progressive glasses, or for single-vision reading or computer (intermediate) vision glasses.
OD: Latin for Oculus Dexter, meaning the right eye.
OS: Latin for Oculus Sinister, meaning the left eye.
OU: Latin for Oculus Uterque, meaning each eye.
PAL: Progressive Addition (or Adjustment) Lens: sometimes on a Progressive Rx an eye dr. will write two different numbers for the NV-ADD, perhaps +2.25 and +2.50, to increase the reading power in the NV-ADD for Progressive lenses.
PD (Pupillary Distance): the PD is the measurement of the distance between your pupils. This is needed for the manufacturer of the eyeglasses to know where to place the optical center on each lens, so you can see well with the glasses.
PL: Plano. Latin for “flat.” If this is in the SPH section of an Rx, it means no nearsighted or farsighted correction is needed.
RX: a prescription.
SPH: the first section on an Rx. It corrects nearsighted or farsighted vision.
UV: the abbreviation of ultraviolet. UV light is invisible to the human eye, but it is UV light that gives us a sunburn, and too much exposure to it can damage the eye. All of the lenses Zenni Optical offers come with 100 percent UV protection, for free.
VA: Visual acuity: how well the eye can see. Sometimes this may be written on an Rx, with a number such as 20/20. This would indicate that with eyeglasses made to this Rx, the vision would be corrected to 20/20 vision.
Blue light blocking lenses provide protection against the harmful blue light emitted from digital devices, artificial lighting, and the sun. Prolonged exposure to high-energy visible (HEV) blue light can lead to eye strain and blurred vision..
Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades or sunnies; more names below) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.
multifocal lenses with three viewing areas – distance-, intermediate-, and near-vision. They have a seamless, invisible design where the power “progressively” changes throughout the lens with distance viewing on the top and near vision on the bottom. The clearest vision in a progressive is top to bottom through the center of the lens. Just like bifocals, it can take time to adapt to wearing new progressives. For new wearers, build up wear-time every day for the first 2-3 weeks to adapt to the lenses.
have two viewing areas divided by a visible line – a larger viewing area for distance and a smaller area for reading. If you haven’t worn bifocals before, it can take some time to adjust to moving your eyes between the distance and reading portions of the lens.
Prescription lenses come in different types based on the wearer’s individual visual needs.
What is Pupillary Distance?
Pupillary distance (PD) measures the distance between the centers of your pupils. This measurement is used to determine where you look through the lens of your glasses and should be as accurate as possible. The average adult’s PD is between 54-74 mm; kids’ are between 43-58 mm. Your eye doctor will usually measure your PD during an eye exam. However, if it was not given to you, the below 5 steps will help you measure it yourself.
How to Measure Your PD?
Known as slides or pool slides, slide sandals started out their life being called shower shoes. They were later rebranded as slides to make them sound a little bit more suitable for daily wear. But these shoes were specifically requested and designed for wear in the shower. Adidas just did so well with the design that soon, people started wearing them everywhere…and they still do.
Most of the legs are open.
The following is a partial list of types of slippers:
When it comes to top-class appeal and aesthetics, loafers reign supreme. Loafers are one of those casual slip-ons that you can wear to any laid-back outing and still look dapper. They are designed as a low shoe, exposing the ankles.
Sometimes, they feature leather around the vamp, a design known as a saddle. They are the kind of shoes that can be perfectly paired with both casual wear (like shorts), office attire, or evening look
Sandals / Open shoe
Another popular form of footwear among both men and women in sandals. They are not only stylish but also very comfortable. Not to mention they go with just about everything casual. Whether you are wearing jeans or shorts, a maxi dress or tailored trousers, sandals look gorgeous on everything. Sandals are perfect for the summer season, as they let your feet breathe. They also make great vacation footwear, as they are comfortable and easy to slip on and off. Sandals come in different colors and styles for both men and women.
Made from soft leather, notably suede, moccasins are a soft, comfortable pair of shoes. For casual use.
Also known as wingtip oxfords, brogue shoes feature a pointed toe-cap with extensions, or wingtips. These wingtips extend from one side of the shoe to the other.
Buckled shoes, also known as buckle shoes, monk shoes, and monk strap shoes, have a long history. In fact, you’ve seen these shoes tons and tons of times…but probably never in person.
As compared to oxford shoes, derbies are more casual rather than formal. Unlike oxford shoes, derby shoes have open lacing, which means that there are no seams between the front and tongue of the shoe. The quarters are meticulously stitched above the vamp. The lack of tightened or fixed laces allows greater movement to the wearer. Some of the other features of derby shoes include elaborate toes, multiple-paneled construction, and durable leather soles.
Simply put, oxford shoes are lace-up shoes that are largely considered classic dress shoes. They are characterized by closed lacing with a low heel and a low cut, which exposes the ankle of the wearer.
The most common oxford shoes are the plain ones that do not boast any elaborate piecing. Their sheer simplicity and elegance make them the perfect choice for formal evening shoes. You can find these shoes mostly in black patent leather, ideal for a black-tie wedding or an evening ball.
Some plain oxford shoes also come in polished brown leather styles.
An athletic shoe is a generic name for a shoe designed for sporting activities. They were originally sporting apparel, but are today worn much more widely as casual footwear. It can also go by the name sport shoe, running shoe, gym shoe, tennis shoes, sneakers (American English) or trainers (British English).
The room where the spa water was dispensed, and in which, or in adjacent rooms, social events such as dances were held during the season, was commonly called the “pump room(s)” – Hence “pumps” for the shoes which would often have been worn there.
Flats, footwear which is not high-heeled. Ballet flats, derived from ballet shoes, for casual wear as well as dancing. Ballet shoes (also known as ballet slippers), often referred to as “flats” or “flat shoes” Racing flats, lightweight shoes used primarily for running a race.
What is a mid heel?
Mid-height heels are from 2½ to 3½ inches (8.5 cm). They are an intermediate between standard heels and stiletto heels, which are from 4 to 10 inches. The extreme heels are made of steel, and very narrow at the base: 0.4 inches or less.
High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel is significantly higher off the ground compared to the toes. High, or elevated, heels are anything over 3.5 cm. and can be as much as 18 cm or more in the case of ballet boots. High heels make the wearer appear taller, accentuate the muscle tone in their legs and make their legs appear visibly longer.
There are many types of high heels, which come in different styles, colors and materials, and can be found all over the world. The first known pictorial evidence of high heels comes from 10th-century Persia where they were worn by men in combination with stirrups for horse riding. Heels have had significant cultural and fashionable meanings attached to them over the past 1,000 years, especially regarding the social construction of gender in the West. Although in the 17th century high heels were the sign of masculine power and social status by the 21st century narrow high heels represented femininity and “erotic capital” although a thick high heel was still acceptable for males in some situations.
Wearing high heels is associated with health risks such as a greater risk of falls in the elderly, musculoskeletal pain, developing foot deformities and developing varicose veins.
What’s the first thing that comes to your mind when we say the beach? Yes, it’s flip flops! They are the perfect beach accessory that you can ask for. Flip flops are comfy, stylish, and available in every color and pattern. Flip flops are also called thongs.
General lead-acid battery applications:
Batteries can be referred to by the application they were designed for. These applications will range from pure starting to pure cycling or deep cycling and also float service or standby/backup power. Many applications have needs somewhere in between.
General lead-acid battery chemistry:
A battery can be described by the Chemistry of the alloys used in the production of the batteries’ grids or plates:
Amongst other things, the alloy (chemistry) used in the production of the battery grid, paste and final plates will dictate how well the battery will cycle, how long it will live when properly maintained, how much it will gas when being discharged and charged and how much water it will use as it works. Typically, calcium alloys will use less water and will live better in heat. Batteries made with Semi-Traction Industrial Type calcium plates will have the added advantage of long life in Deep Cycle applications as well as eliminated maintenance requirements. Batteries made with higher Antimony alloys will generally deliver good to great cycle life but will use more water in the process requiring rigorous maintenance schedules to realize actual design life. Hybrid alloys will perform somewhere in between closer to the calcium alloy spectrum.
General lead-acid battery types:
There are many different batteries currently in production throughout the world. Lead-acid batteries can “generally” be described first by Type or Construction:
Sealed valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) or starved electrolyte (DRY CELL) AGM or GEL types use a solution of sulfuric acid and water completed suspended into a GEL like material using silicate additives or absorbed into a woven glass fiber mat (AGM). There is no excess electrolyte to leak out even if tipped or turned upside down. This Sealed “Non spillable” characteristic is a product of the construction and chemistry of the battery design.
Sealed Maintenance-free Flooded and Accessible Maintenance-free Flooded types use a solution of sulfuric acid and water that can spill out of the battery if it is tipped. Even though the Sealed Maintenance-free Flooded batteries are not accessible, electrolyte will eventually leak out through the central degassing manifold vents if tipped. Some Maintenance free flooded batteries have removeable filler caps making the battery accessible.
Maintenance required flooded 2V, 6V or 12V industrial, commercial, general purpose deep cycle and hybrid batteries use a solution of sulfuric acid and water that can spill out of the battery if it is tipped. These batteries generally require high levels of watering and maintenance.